Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatotoxic effect of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit in Wistar Rats

Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Prince C. Unekwe, Augustine I. Airaodion, Ifeoma N. Nweke, Uloaku Ogbuagu

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-16

Background: Xylopia aethiopica fruit has been reported to possess high medicinal value. Thus, people use it without any regard for its toxicity.

Aim: This study is therefore aimed at investigating its toxicity on the liver of Wistar rats.

Methodology: The fruits of Xylopia aethiopica were obtained from new market in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and were authenticated. They were air-dried and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as solvent. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was determined using standard method. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Animals in groups A, B, C, and D were administered 129.62, 259.23, 388.85 and 518.46 mg/kg body weight of X. aethiopica fruit extract respectively, while those in group E received normal feeds and water only. The administration was done once daily for 28 days via oral route. Hepatic indices were determined using standard methods.

Results: No significant difference was observed when the activities of ALT and AST in animals treated with lower doses of the extract were compared with those in the control group. A significant increase was however observed in the activities of ALT and AST in animals treated with higher doses of the extract when compared with those in the control group. ALP activity was observed to increase in experimental animals when compared with those of the control animals. This elevation was however not significant when animals treated with 129.62 mg/kg body weight of extract were compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of total protein and albumin in animals treated with lower doses of the extract when compared with that of the control group at P<0.05. A significant increase was however observed in the concentrations of total protein and albumin in animals treated with higher doses of the extract when compared with those in the control group. The concentration of globulin was only significant when animals treated with259.23 and 518.46 mg/kg body weight of extract were compared with those of the control animals. The extract was observed to inhibit the activities of amylase and lipase respectively in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: This present study showed that extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruit is hepatotoxic especially at high dosage. Therefore, its use in folklore medicine should be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Treatment Strategies for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Include Lifestyle Modifications and a Major Role of Vitamin D. A Randomized Controlled Trial

Mohsin Jamil Khan, Hongyan Ge

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 17-25

Aims: hypovitaminosis D may be related to the pathogenesis of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may contribute to NAFLD's development and progression. Our study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with NAFLD.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, China, between January 2020 and September 2020.

Methods: A total number of 166 patients were randomly divided into treatment group (n=86) and control group (n=80) with elevated levels of AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) with hypovitaminosis D, with high or normal levels of T.G. (triglyceride), TCHO (total cholesterol), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein C), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein C). The treatment group received vitamin D 400 units twice a day along with lifestyle modifications as SMT (standard medical Treatment) (vitamin D+SMT), and the control group only received lifestyle modifications (SMT) for 6 months. The study's primary objective was to assess an improvement in elevated serum AST, ALT, T.G., TCHO, LDL-C, HDL-C, and the secondary purpose was to observe whether vitamin D can improve hypovitaminosis D in the patients with NAFLD.

Results: after 6 months of the treatment with vitamin D supplementation, a significant improvement in serum AST and ALT was observed in treatment group (vitamin D+SMT) when they were compared with control group (SMT) as, (ALT: vitamin D+SMT, 57.635±4.882 and 57.581±4.817(u/l) p value=0.033 vs SMT, 59.958±5.715 and 59.909±5.690(u/l) p value=0.07) and AST (AST: vitamin D+SMT, 46.920±4.162 and 46.864±4.145(u/l) p value=0.03 vs SMT, 50.270±4.060 and 50.256±4.053(u/l) p value=0.117). An improvement in vitamin D levels were observed only in treatment group (vitamin D+SMT) as, (VD: vitamin D+SMT, 20.985±3.732 and 21.049±3.684 (ng/ml) p value= 0.014 and SMT, 26.665±1.534 and 26.594±1.484 (ng/ml) p value=0.011).

Conclusion: In the patients with NAFLD, administration of vitamin D supplementation and lifestyle modifications can significantly improve serum ALT, AST, and vitamin D levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bambara Nut on Hepatic Biomarkers of Wistar Rats

A. I. Airaodion, P. N. Akunne, O. C. Njoku, N. O. Oladosu, A. U. Megwas

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 26-38

Aim: This study sought to investigate the effect of Bambara nut on hepatic biomarkers of Wistar rats.

Methodology: The Songkhla 1 variety (red seed coat) of Bambara nuts were locally sourced in Obinze area of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The seeds were peeled and ground to a fine powder using a coffee grinder and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and methanol as the solvent. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were acclimatized for seven days during which they were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. They were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each. Rats in group A were administered distilled water while those in groups B, C and D were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of Bambara nut extract 12 hourly for twenty-one days via oral route of administration. At the end of 28 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed under diethyl ether as anaesthesia and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. Hepatic biomarkers were determined using standard methods.

Results: Bambara nut was observed to unperturbed the activities of AST and ALT as well as the concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin, and bilirubin. However, the extract was observed to significantly (p<0.05) increase the activity of ALP but decreased the activities of amylase and lipase when respectively compared with those in the control group.

Conclusion: Observations from this present study showed that Bambara nut is harmless to the liver. Thus, it is not hepatotoxic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Rabbits Exposed to Sodium Cyanide

B. I. Elleh, E. S. Bartimeaus, F. U. Igwe, D. G. Tamuno-Emine, E. S. Agoro

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 39-47

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical changes in Rabbits due to Sodium Cyanide exposure.

Study Design:  An experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Animal House, Applied and Environmental Biology Department, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between April 2020 and November 2020.

Methodology: A total of forty eight (48) rabbits as indicated by Mead’s formula constituted the sample size. The study was divided into three groups including the control group. With the exception of the control rabbits, others were treated daily with 0.05 mg/kg sodium cyanide for 30 days, 60 days and 90 days respectively. Cardiac blood samples were extracted from the rabbits using standard procedure. Biochemical parameters investigated include thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total proteins (TP), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, aspartete aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences between groups were computed using Graph pad prism 7.0 version developed by Graph pad software, San Siago, Califonia, USA. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance between groups was taken at p<.05.

Results: Biochemical results showed significant (p<.05) increase in levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, AST, ALT, total and conjugated bilirubin in day 30, 60 and 90 respectively as compared to control. Significant (p < 0.05) decrease was also observed in thyroxine, triiodothyronine, total protein and albumin concentrations following treatment with the cyanide.

Conclusion: Exposure to 0.05 mg/kg sodium cyanide may have harmful effect on biochemical and parameters due to damages done to organs such as liver and the thyroid gland.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Potential of Alkaloid Extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii Leaves in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Onyinyechi C. Njoku, Augustine I. Airaodion, Olachi L. Osuagwu, Nathaniel O. Oladosu, Anthony U. Megwas

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 48-63

Aim: This study sought to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of alkaloid extracts from V. doniana and F. thonningii leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of V. doniana and F. thonningii were obtained from a local market Nkwagu in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. They were dried and pulverized to fine granules using manual grinder. Crude alkaloid was extracted using standard method. The acute oral toxicity of both plants was determined. Forty adult male albino rats were induced intraperitoneally with alloxan. The rats were grouped into eight groups of five animals per group: Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of V. doniana respectively, groups 3 and 4 were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of F. thonningii respectively, group 5 was treated with 100 mg/kg of V. doniana + 100 mg/kg of F. thonningii, group 6 was treated with 200 mg/kg of V. doniana + 200 mg/kg of F. thonningii, group 7 animals were not induced with alloxan and untreated (normal control) while group 8 were induced with alloxan but not treated (diabetic control). The extracts were administered to the animals orally for 30 days.  Biochemical analyses were assayed using standard methods.

Results: Alloxan-induced diabetes greatly caused hepatotoxicity but was ameliorated by alkaloid extracts from V. doniana and F. thonningii leaves.

Conclusion: Results showed that alloxan induction damaged the liver but the effects were ameliorated by extracts of V. doniana and F. thonningii, thus, making both plants hepatoprotective. However, extract of F. thoningii seems to be more potent.