Open Access Case Report

Purtcher Like Retinopathy Complicating Acute Pancreatitis: Rare Case

Mounir Bouali, Othmane El Yamine, Meriem Essakhi, Issam Hamrerras, Abdelillah E. l. Bakouri, Fatimazahra Bensardi, Khalid E. l. Hattabi, Abdelaziz Fadil

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 29-33

Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process in the pancreas that can affect other distant organs. Ophthalmologic involvement in particular Ischemic retinopathy known as "Purtscher" during acute pancreatitis has been exceptionally associated, Purtscher retinopathy is a retinal vasculopathy most commonly caused by head or chesttrauma. The most frequent signs include white ischemic infarcts (cotton-wool spots) and retinal hemorrhages (intraretinal, preretinal, or flame). The signs of ischemic vasculopathy predominate in the interpapillomacular zone. Pathophysiology is not yet fully understood and no treatment has proven effective to date. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman with sudden bilateral loss of vision caused by Purtscher retinopathy in acute pancreatitis.

Open Access Case Report

The Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: A Rare Complication after Post-Traumatic Spine Surgery

Mounir Bouali, El Batloussi Yousra, Abdelillah El Bakouri, Fatimazahra Bensardi, Khalid El Hattabi, Abdelaziz Fadil

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 34-38

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare complication of post-traumatic spine surgery. The third portion of the duodenum is compressed between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery: duodenal (intestinal) occlusion and sometimes arterio-mesenteric occlusion occur. We report the case of a young male patient, in whom this syndrome occurred after spinal surgery. He had fractures in the dorso-lumbar vertebrae. The patient had undergone an osteosynthesis. On a post-operative day 3, he had vomiting. Abdominal CT revealed the findings indicative of superior mesenteric artery syndrome: gastric dilatation and complete halt of the third part of the duodenum. We chose conservative treatment: the rest of the digestive tract, early parenteral nutrition, and correction of fluid and electrolyte imbalances. These treatments did not ameliorate the condition and thus we performed laparotomic gastro-jejunal bypass, which completely ameliorated the condition. The patient was discharged on the 7 postoperative day. We here summarize the clinical features and treatment fundamentals of this disorder.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Potency of Ethanolic Extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seed against Acute Ethanol-induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

Augustine I. Airaodion, Ada C. Ngwogu, John A. Ekenjoku, Kenneth O. Ngwogu

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-10

Aim: Hepatoprotective potency of ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seed against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: G. kola seeds were purchased from a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria. The seeds were chopped to smaller pieces after the outer coats were removed. They were air-dried and finally ground to fine powder using a blender. The powder was extracted using ethanol. 20 adult Wistar rats with body weight between 150 and 180 g were used for this study. They were acclimatized for 7 days during which they were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. They were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered normal saline solution while those in groups 3 and 4 were administered G. kola extract for 28 days. The animals were administered the extract and saline solution at a dose of 4 mL per 100 g body weight 12 hourly via oral route. At the end of the treatment, they were fasted overnight and animals in groups 2 and 4 were exposed to a single dose of 70% ethanol at 12 mL/kg body weight to induce oxidative stress. After 12 hours of ethanol administration, the animals were anaesthetized using diethyl ether and were sacrificed. Biochemical parameters were determined using standard methods.

Results: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) but decreased reduced glutathione (GSH).  These effects were regulated by G. kola administration due to its phytochemical content and antioxidant potential.

Conclusion: Results from this present study have shown that G. kola possesses hepatoprotective potency against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological and Parasitological Assessment of Fruits and Vegetables Sold in Akoko South West Local Government Area of Ondo State Nigeria

E. J. Olotu, J. O. Aribisala, O. Oluyele, O. R. Ojo, B. O. Olaniyi

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 11-20

This study assessed the microbial and parasitic infestation of fresh fruits and vegetables sold in   two major markets in Akungba Akoko and Ikare akoko, Ondo State Nigeria. A total of 10 fruits and 10 vegetables commonly consumed by dwellers of these communities were randomly purchased from the two markets. They were washed, and examined for microbial and parasitic organisms.   The predominant bacteria isolated from both fruits and vegetables included: Staphylococcus   aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus lactis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium. The parasitic eggs observed included:  Capillaria hepatica, Fasciola sp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicolaris and  Taenia saginata while the parasitic larvae included: Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia sp., Fasciola sp., Ascaris lumbricoides. The parasites recovered from vegetables sold in  Akungba market were more than those recovered from Ikare market. Findings from this study revealed that raw fruits and vegetables could be potential sources of microbial and parasitic infections, it is therefore essential to educate the populace on the need to inculcate the habit of thorough washing of these produce with clean water before consumption to avoid potential health risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nephro- and Hepato-TOXICITY of Common Household Insecticides Used in Nigeria

A. I. Airaodion, A. U. Megwas, J. A. Ekenjoku, K. O. Ngwogu, A. C. Ngwogu

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 21-28

Background: The use of household insecticides for the eradication of insects especially mosquitoes in Nigeria is increasing. These insecticides are used without consideration of their adverse effect on human health.

Aim:  This study sought to investigate the effect of common household insecticides used in Nigeria on renal and hepatic indices of Wistar rats.

Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six each and kept in different rooms. Rats in group 1 were exposed to Rambo, those in group 2 were exposed to Mortein, those in group 3 were exposed to Raid, those in group 4 were exposed to Baygon while those in group 5 were not exposed to any insecticide and served as the control group. The exposure was done twice a day via inhalation route. Throughout the experiment, animals were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. After twenty-one days of exposure, they were sacrificed after an overnight fast under diethyl ether as anesthesia. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. Renal and hepatic indices were determined using standard methods.

Results: All the insecticides used in this study significantly increased renal and hepatic indices when compared with those of their respectively control at P < 0.05.

Conclusion: The result of this study showed that common household insecticides used in Nigeria have the propensity to induce nephro- and hepato-toxicity in Wistar rats.