Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Monosodium Glutamate on Body Weight and Alanine Aminotransferase Activity in Wistar Rats

Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Augustine I. Airaodion, Victor N. Okoroukwu, Uloaku Ogbuagu, John A. Ekenjoku

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-8

Background: In recent days, the use of seasonings to enhance the flavor of food has been increased. A variety of seasonings are produced now days and the constituents of these flavor-enhancers are unknown to ignorant consumers. The consumers were preferred to eat food with good taste without consideration the effect of additives on their health. These seasonings contain monosodium glutamate (MSG) which really spiced the food.

Aim: This study sought to investigate the effect of MSG on body weight and alanine aminotransferase activity.

Place and Duration: This research was carried out at the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, and the Department of Chemical Pathology, St. Anthony’s Hospital Ltd. Aba, both in Abia State, Nigeria in 2011.

Methods: MSG (3g/satchet containing 99% MSG) was obtained from a Grocery Store at New Market, Aba in Abia State, Nigeria. Forty Wistar rats were used for this study. Fifteen of the rats were used for acute toxicity test (LD50) and twenty-five for the experiment. The 25 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 5 rats each. Animals in groups A, B, C, and D were respectively administered 500 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1,250 mg/kg of MSG thoroughly mixed with standard feed for eight weeks. Animals in group E received equal amount of feeds without MSG added. This group served as the control group. At the end of 8 weeks, animals were fasted overnight and anaesthetized using diethyl ether. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and ALT activity was determined using standard method.

Result: The LD50 was taken to be 500 mg/kg, which is the median of 200 mg/kg which did not kill any of the animals and 800 mg/kg that killed all its animals. MSG was observed to increase weight gain as well as ALT activity when compared with control animals.

Conclusion: The elevation of ALT activity by MSG is an indication that it can induce hepatotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic Potential of Alkaloid Extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii Leaves on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

O. C. Njoku, A. I. Airaodion, O. O. Awosanya, J. A. Ekenjoku, V. N. Okoroukwu, E. O. Ogbuagu, N. Nwachukwu, C.U. Igwe

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-12

Background: The growing number of diabetes coupled with the harsh side effects of some synthetic drugs has led to the increasing search for alternatives which are relatively cheap with minimal side effects.

Aim: This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic potential of alkaloid extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Fresh leaves of V. doniana and F. thonningii were obtained from a local market Nkwagu in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. They were washed thoroughly in running water to remove contaminants. They were separately air-dried at room temperature for two weeks. The dried leaves were pulverized to fine granules using manual grinder. Crude alkaloid was extracted using standard method. The acute oral toxicity of both plants was determined. Diabetes was induced in forty male rats intra peritoneally with alloxan at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight. The rats were grouped into eight groups of five animals per group: Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of V. doniana respectively, groups 3 and 4 were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of F. thonningii respectively, group 5 was treated with 100 mg/kg of V. doniana + 100 mg/kg of F. thonningii, group 6 was treated with 200 mg/kg of V. doniana + 200 mg/kg of F. thonningii, group 7 animals were not induced with alloxan and untreated (normal control) while group 8 were induced with alloxan but not treated (diabetic control). The extracts were administered to the animals orally for 30 days.  The animal’s blood sugar levels and lipid profile were assayed using standard methods.

Results: Both extracts significantly reduced blood glucose level when compared with those of diabetic control at p<0.05. The extracts also favourably perturbed the lipid profile of animals.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that both V. doniana and F. thonningii leaves be potent antidiabetic property. They could also reduce the risk of obesity and hypertension due to its hypolipidemic effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Evaluation of Organs of Male Wistar Rats Fed with Monosodium Glutamate Treated-diet

Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Augustine I. Airaodion, Uloaku Ogbuagu

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-13

Background: Recently, the use of seasonings to enhance the flavour of food has increased. A variety of seasonings are produced nowadays and the constituents of these flavour-enhancers are unknown to ignorant consumers. Most consumers preferred to eat food with good taste without considering the effect of additives on their health. One of the most commonly used food additives is monosodium glutamate that is widely used as a food seasoning.

Aim: This study sought to evaluate the histopathological changes in Wistar rats fed with monosodium glutamate treated-diet.

Place: This research was carried out at the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria in 2011.

Methods: MSG (3 g/sachet containing 99% MSG) was obtained from a Grocery Store at New Market, Aba in Abia State, Nigeria. Forty Wistar rats were used for this study. Fifteen of the rats were used for acute toxicity test (LD50) and twenty-five for the experiment. The 25 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 5 rats each. Animals in groups A, B, C, and D were respectively administered 500 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg, 1,000 mg/kg and 1,250 mg/kg of MSG thoroughly mixed with standard feed for eight weeks. Animals in group E received an equal amount of feeds without MSG added. This group served as the control group. At the end of 8 weeks, animals were humanely sacrificed and organs were harvested.

Result: The LD50 was taken to be 500 mg/kg, which is the median of 200 mg/kg which did not kill any of the animals and 800 mg/kg that killed all its animals. The histopathology of the testes, liver, spleen, heart, lungs and kidneys were evaluated. Treatment with MSG was observed to cause necrosis in the organs investigated.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that MSG is toxic to organs of the animals used and its use as flavour enhancer should be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Combined Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium on Body Weight and Blood Glucose Concentration of Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-induced Diabetic Albino Rats

S. C. Ekeh, K. M. E. Iheanacho, C. O. Ujowundu, V. C. Ofojebe

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-8

Background: Diabetes is a major health challenge globally and it is on the increase as carbohydrate is the main food consumed by an average human. Up till now, no synthetic drug has been able to provide permanent cure for diabetes.

Aim: This study investigated the effect of the combined ethanol leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium on body weight and blood glucose levels of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic albino rats.

Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced intraperitoneally with 65 mg/kg bodyweight of streptozotocin and 230 mg/kg bodyweight of nicotinamide. A total of 76 male albino rats were divided into eight groups of five rats each which were normal control, diabetic control and diabetics administered 500 mg/kg M. oleifera, 500mg/kg G. latifolium, 250 mg/kg M.oleifera+500 mg/kg G. latifolium, 500 mg/kg M. oleifera+250 mg/kg G. latifolium, 500 mg/kg M. oleifera + 500 mg/kg G. latifolium and 10 mg/kg bodyweight glibenclamide respectively.  

Results: There was a significant (p≤0.05) reduction in blood glucose levels of the treated groups when compared with the diabetic control. A significant body weight gain was observed across the treated groups when compared with the diabetic untreated.

Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, there is synergy in the anti-diabetic efficacies of Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium.

Open Access Review Article

Functional State of a Liver at Various Purulent - Septic Diseases and Way of Their Correction of Treatment

В. E. Avacov, N. K. Ibragimov, R. S. Muralimova, Z. F. Ramazanova

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-5

Background: Recently, the quantity of acute purulent - septic diseases and it related complications are one of urgent problems of clinical medicine (6). Especially, patients having purulent - septic complications are aggravated by acute hepatic-renal insufficiency (AHRI), which is caused by serious disturbance of liver and kidneys organs.

Objectives: With the purpose of study of a liver functional state and optimization of treatment of hepatic encephalopathy we carried out the research.

Materials/Patients and Methods: 34 patients with sugar diabetes complicated various purulent-septic diseases are studied: Based on classification of severity and prevalence of purulent process all patients were divided into 3 groups. The first group consist of 9 patients with a satisfactory general state and easy degree of endogenic intoxication. Second group included 14 patients with a general state of average severity and average degree of endogenic intoxication, the inflammation process was distributed on 2 - 3 topographical areas for them. The third group included 11 patients with high severity, inflammatory process on a background expressed intoxication syndrome (serious degree of endogenic intoxication), the purulent process was distributed on superficial and deep fascial-cellular tissue for them.

Results and Conclusions:  Thus, the data, received by us, testify that the degree of change of the majority of parameters of a liver functional state for patients with purulent-septic complications depends on severity of suppurative inflammation. In this connection taking into account a state of a liver, we regard necessary to include hepatoprotectors in particular Hepa-Merz (L-ornitine-L-aspartate) in treatment besides desintoxication therapy.