Open Access Original Research Article

The Potency of Bombax costatum Methanol Stem-bark Extract as a Hepato-curative Agent on Acetominophen Induced Hepato Toxicity in Wistar Albino Rats

M. H. Garba

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-11

Background: The main thrust of the study was investigate the curative potentials of stem bark extract of Bombax costatum in acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals.

Methods: Thirty experimental animals (Wistar rats) were grouped into six. Group III is the negative treatment hepato-toxified by sub chronic oral administration of acetaminophen at a dosage of 250 mg/kgbw, Groups IV, V and VI were hepato-toxified as in III and thereafter, followed up with treatment with 70% methanol stem bark extract of Bombax costatum at a dosage of 200, 400 and 600 mg/Kgbw on daily basis for another three weeks (20 days).

Results: There was significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in both haematological and serum biochemical parameters of induced animals compared to the placebo in the first stanza while a significant increase (P≤ 0.05) was thereafter observed in the haemoglobin (HB), Packed cell volume (PCV), Mean copsucular volume (MCV), Red blood count (RBC) and Total white blood count (TWBC) with a corresponding decrease ((P≤ 0.05) in the platelets count in the treated groups. Similarly, significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in the serum Aspartate transferase (AST), Alanine transferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein, direct and indirect biluribin and Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) with a concomitant decrease ((P≤ 0.05) in Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was also observed in the treated groups compared to the negative control.

Conclusion: The inadequacy of herbs used in curing of liver diseases and other dysfunctions caused by allopathic drugs is enough reason to focus on systematic scientific research to evaluate some species of plants that are traditionally claimed to possess hepato-curative activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) in a District General Hospital, Northern Ireland

Grace Hui Chin Lim, Kealan McLaughlin, Joanne Hui Yee Lim, Bryan Chang Wei Lim, Dafalla Elamin, Mohi Babiker, Gerarde McArdle

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-6

Emergency laparotomy Audit is the facility that helps to take care of patients in their adverse conditions with the help of advanced medical facilities and tried to cure them every aspect.

Aim: We measured our patient outcomes regarding 30-day mortality rate and morbidity post emergency laparotomies performed in Daisyhill Hospital, Newry and compared it to NELA (National Emergency Laparotomy Audit). This is to identify the reasons in our DGH (Daisyhill Hospital) for the better or worse outcome performance to improve patient care.

Methods: This audit is carried out over a two years duration from August 2015 to August 2017. Data were collected from the theatre log, surgeons log, secretarial operation notes log and Northern Ireland Electronic Care Record. Inclusion and exclusion criteria of patients were met as set out by NELA. 

Results: Total number of patients included in the audit is 112. Out of 112, 53 patients are female, and 59 are male. The median age is 65.5-year-old with a range from 19 to 87 years old. The 30-day mortality rate is 7.1% (n=8) which is 1.5 times lower than the national 30-day mortality rate. 90-day mortality rate is 0.9% (n=1).  

Conclusion: Our unit is performing well compared to NELA patient outcomes regarding 30-day mortality rate post emergency laparotomy. We would recommend detailed data collection including the time of day of operation, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologist) grading and p-possum score.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Parkia biglobosa on Acute Ethanol-induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

Augustine I. Airaodion, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Adenike R. Adeniji, Aanu P. Agunbiade, Edith O. Airaodion

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-11

Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective effect of Parkia biglobosa on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in wistar rats.

Methods: P. biglobosa was purchased from a local market at Orita-Challenge area of Ibadan, Nigeria. They were sun dried and milled into powder using an electronic blender (Moulinex). The powder was extracted using n-hexane. Twenty adult male wistar rats with body weight between 120 and 150 g were purchased from the Central Animal House, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. They were housed in Imrat animal house, Ibadan. They were acclimatized for seven (7) days during which they were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. They were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered normal saline solution while those in groups 3 and 4 were administered P. biglobosa extract for twenty-one days. The animals were administered the extract and saline solution at a dose of 4 ml per 100 g body weight 12 hourly via oral route of administration. At the end of the treatment, they were fasted overnight and animals in groups 2 and 4 were exposed to a single dose of 70% ethanol at 12 ml/kg body weight to induce oxidative stress. After 12 hours of ethanol administration, the animals were anaesthetized using diethyl ether and were sacrificed. Liver was excised, weighed and homogenized in 50 mmol/L Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.4) and then centrifuged at 5000 × g for 15 minutes for biochemical analysis. Supernatants were immediately kept frozen until when needed.

Results: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress significantly increased the activities of AST, ALT, LDH, LPO, CAT and SOD but decrease GSH. However, it has no effect on GPX.  These effects were regulated by P. biglobosa administration.

Conclusion: P. biglobosa was able to remedy the effect of ethanol by regulating the oxidative stress biomarkers, thus possesses prophylactic efficacy against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and can protect the liver against free radicals arising from oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alterations in Hepatic Functions in Administration of Pennisetum puerperium to Wistar Rats

Kelvin Asemota Enoma, Moses Aziakapono Omoirri, Ovwasa Felicia Tega, Olowe Gideon Temitope, P. R. C. Esegbue

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-6

Part of its metabolic function, the liver; which is a vital organ of all vertebrates is exposed to numerous toxins that may alter its physiologic functions. This functional tendency is often implicated via specific markers whose levels can be assayed to ascertain the functional capacity of the organ. Current study examined the changes in levels of liver enzymes following administration of Pennisetum puerperium (P. puparium) aqueous leaf extract to albino wistar rats. Twenty (20) adult wistar rats weighing between 130 g – 150 g were used. The rats were grouped into four (4) of five rats each. Group I received normal rat feed, groups II to IV received 200 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous P. puparium leaf extract respectively for a period of After the period of administration of the extract, rats were euthanized and blood samples for biochemical assay of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities. The relative body and liver weights were also determined. Findings of the research study showed that the administration of doses of the plant extract (200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight) to animals significantly produced an increased (p <0.05) serum levels of liver enzyme markers (AST, ALT and ALP) when compared with the control group. There was also a significantly increased relative body and liver weights following administration of all doses of the plant extract to animals when compared with the control group. It can be concluded that P. puparium aqueous extract may possess deleterious effects on the hepatic functions of the animals at the various doses of the plant extract tested in this present study.

Open Access Review Article

Management of Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea: Review

Cordelia Markovnikov Reagan, Gopikumar Shivaramaiah, Prasanna Honnavar, V. N. Prasad

International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Page 1-6

Excessive usage of antibiotics often puts the patients at a risk for reactions to drugs or other problems, including Antibiotic-associated diarrhea. One of the most common and serious causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhea is infection with a bacterium, Clostridium difficile. Its occurrence varies from several hours after the commencement of antibiotic therapy to 6-8 weeks after antibiotic therapy is discontinued. The infection can result in significant morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. In 22% of cases of diarrhea related to C. difficile, withdrawal of the inciting agent alone will lead to resolution of clinical signs in three days. In some cases, replacement with a suitable antibiotic not known to cause diarrhea may be required. When the presentation is more severe or persistent, which is usually seen in case of C. difficile infection, the patient needs to be treated with oral metronidazole or oral vancomycin. Less frequently used agents include bacitracin, teicoplanin or fusidic acid. Numerous probiotics have been tested for the treatment and prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea. The role of probiotics is controversial in treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea, particularly when associated with C. difficle. However physicians still continue to use them anecdotally in management of antibiotic associated diarrhea. As an alternative antibiotic in the treatment of C. difficile infections, the US FDA approved a new drug Fidaxomicin in May 2011. When the Antibiotic associated diarrhea related to C. difficle is recurrent over multiple times despite treatment, then Faecal Microbiota Transplantation administered to the patients has been proven to be successful.