International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International&nbsp;&nbsp;Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IRJGH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Gastroenterology and Hepatology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology en-US International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Disease Burden, Management, and Future Perspectives https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/92 <p>Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant and pertinent human ailment linked to a modified way of life, characterized by a fast increasing occurrence and prevalence in the majority of countries worldwide. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to significant health problems at various stages of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and related consequences such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and decompensation (such as bleeding from esophageal varices, accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, and impaired brain function due to liver dysfunction). In addition to hepatic problems, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients frequently experience the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the current&nbsp; comprehension of the fundamental pathways in relation to NAFLD is growing, the precise pathophysiological impact of NAFLD on T2D and CVD remains incompletely known. One of the main theories suggests that a sub-clinical pro-inflammatory milieu is caused by lipotoxicity, insulin resistance (IR), and the intestinal microbiota. The primary foundation of the treatment involves lifestyle adjustment, which encompasses weight reduction, nutritional intervention, and consistent physical activity. While achieving this aim may be challenging for numerous patients, it is advisable for treating physicians to recommend and provide support for it. A variety of therapy choices, ranging from non-invasive management and medical intervention to surgical techniques (such as bariatric surgery), have been created with different results, particularly for the non-invasive treatment methods. The range of innovative therapeutic techniques is extensive, with several intriguing candidates. Collectively, NAFLD represents a significant healthcare concern that is projected to escalate in the future. Consequently, it is imperative for physicians from many disciplines to enhance their understanding of this condition to effectively address it with their patients.</p> Peter Jerome Ishmael Villete Paulino Kimberly Morton Cuthrell Nikolaos Tzenios Copyright (c) 2024 Article et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-01-04 2024-01-04 7 1 1 13 Assessment of Some Biochemical Markers in Plantain (Bole) Rosters in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/93 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To assess some biochemical parameters (AST and ALT) and acute phase reactants (ESR and CRP) of plantain rosters in Port-Harcourt.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Eni-Yimini Laboratories Ltd Address Yenezue-Gene, Epie, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State between August and October 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional observational study was used in which a convenient sample size of 100 subjects between the ages of 20-50 years was used; out of which 50 subjects were plantain (Bole) roasters (test subjects), while the remaining 50 subjects were not plantain (Bole) roasters (control subjects). The test and control subjects were recruited from Agip, Rumuokoro, Rumuagholu, Igwuruta, Choba, and Aluu axes of Port-Harcourt. Oral consent was obtained from the subjects, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to gather relevant information. Also, blood samples were collected from interested persons, and were dispensed into plain bottles and EDTA-anticoagulated bottles; The blood samples in the plain bottles were used for the analysis of AST, ALT using the ELITech Selectra Pro S method, and CRP using the latex particle-enhanced immunoturbidometry method, while the blood samples in the EDTA-anticoagulated bottles were used to assay for ESR using the Westergren method. GraphPad Prism version 9.0.4 of Apple Macintosh HD Big Sur (version 11.0) statistical package was used for the data analysis, and p&lt;0.05 was used and considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed no significant difference in the levels of CRP (p=0.0548), ESR (p=0.1207), AST (p=0.2970) and ALT (p=0.0848) when the control and test subjects were compared. The test subjects within the age range of 20-29 years had a significant decrease in CRP (p=0.0035) compared to the control subjects within the same age range. Also, the test subjects within the age range of 40-49 years had a significant increase in ESR (p=0.0094) compared to the control subjects within the same age range. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between age and ESR (p=0.0006), between duration of exposure and ALT (p=0.0008), and between duration of exposure and ESR (p=0.0026). These results may imply that occupational exposure to burning woods when roasting plantain (Bole) did not trigger any inflammation or hepatocellular injury; however, an increase in age in the exposed individuals resulted in an increase in ESR, and an increase in the duration of exposure to wood smoke resulted in an increase in ALT and ESR.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Exposure to burning woods while roasting plantain (Bole) did not trigger any inflammation or hepatocellular injury. However, robust studies establishing the molecular basis for cause and effect are recommended.</p> Obisike, U. A. Enyindah, N. Anyia, F. A. Copyright (c) 2024 Obisike et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 1 14 21 Evaluation of the Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Ficus benghalensis on the Lipid Profile and Kidney Function in Rat Model https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/94 <p>Almost since the dawn of human civilization, people have been employing herbal medicine as a means of treatment for various ailments. The anti-diabetic properties and lipid profile of <em>Ficus benghalensis</em> were investigated in this research. The anti-diabetic activity was measured by using the alloxan-induced diabetic approach. When compared to the control group, the doses of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg exhibited statistically significant (p&lt;0.05) results in terms of their ability to inhibit the development of diabetes. In the case of total cholesterol, High density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low density Lipoprotein (LDL) groups 3, 5 and 6 with doses of 100 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg exhibited outcomes that were statistically significant. In the case of triglycerides, the findings indicated that SGOT (Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase) group 4 and 5 with doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). The findings of the kidney function test showed that group 4, which received a dosage of 250mg/kg, had statistically significant (p&lt;0.05) outcomes. According to the results, <em>Ficus benghalensis</em> has the potential to be used in the development of standardised phytomedicine for the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, and renal sickness.</p> Puja Bhowmik FM Sharifuzzaman Shohan Juliana Aditi Baroi Tasin Islam Pranto Md. Rahmat Ullah Md. Abdullah Hil Baky Rupak Tasnuva Sharmin Zaman Israt Jahan Rasna Rafat Tashin Copyright (c) 2024 Bhowmik et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-03 2024-02-03 7 1 22 28 An Assessment of Anti-diabetic Effect of Gymnema sylvestre in Alloxan-induced Rat Model https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/95 <p>Since the inception of human civilization, mankind has used herbal medicine for the purpose of healing. This study aimed to examine the antidiabetic efficacy and lipid profile of Gymnema sylvestre. We assessed the antidiabetic activity using the alloxan-induced diabetic technique. Regarding its antidiabetic effect, only the dosage of 900 mg/kg demonstrated statistically significant results (p&lt;0.05). Regarding total cholesterol, High density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low density Lipoprotein (LDL), the HDL level exhibited statistically significant findings in groups 3, 5, and 6. For triglyceride, SGOT (Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase), groups 4, 5, and 6 at doses of 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg, respectively, exhibited statistically significant results (p&lt;0.05). The kidney function test revealed statistically significant outcomes (p&lt;0.05) in groups 4, 5, and 6, which were given doses of 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that <em>Gymnema sylvestre </em>has promise in developing standardized phytomedicine for treating individuals with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, and renal sickness.</p> Souvik Kumar Mandal Sara Rahmat Kazi Sakib Bornila Mehjabin Tasnia Rahman Israt Jahan Rasna Copyright (c) 2024 Mandal et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 7 1 29 36 Expert Opinion on the Prescription Practice of Proton Pump Inhibitor for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/96 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To identify and evaluate the ideal therapeutic option for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and associated nighttime heartburn in Indian settings with a special focus on rabeprazole prescription practice.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The cross-sectional, multiple-response questionnaire-based study was conducted among physicians specialized in the management of GERD. The questionnaire-based survey covered various aspects of GERD management, with a particular focus on the prescription preferences of rabeprazole.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The survey collected responses from 192 experts, assessing their preference for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with 24-hour action. Approximately 91% of respondents favored rabeprazole over omeprazole and pantoprazole. Furthermore, approximately 53% of experts reported a higher incidence of GERD in subjects aged 40-55 years compared to other age groups. Obesity emerged as the predominant comorbid condition among patients experiencing nighttime heartburn associated with GERD. Rabeprazole was the preferred choice for managing nighttime heartburn with GERD symptoms, as indicated by 95% of experts. An overwhelming 97% and 90% of respondents preferred rabeprazole, acknowledging its rapid onset of action and suitability for long-term administration in the context of nighttime heartburn among GERD patients. Notably, 83% of the respondents preferred using domperidone as the prokinetic agent, particularly in conjunction with rabeprazole for the management of functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Among other PPIs, rabeprazole was the preferred choice among experts for GERD management and nighttime heartburn relief, emphasizing its effectiveness in improving the quality of life for GERD patients. Also, it was also noted that domperidone was the preferred prokinetic agent for clinical use in combination with rabeprazole for the management of functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis.</p> Manjula S. Krishna Kumar M. Copyright (c) 2024 Manjula and Krishna.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 7 1 37 43