International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International&nbsp;&nbsp;Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IRJGH/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Gastroenterology and Hepatology’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology en-US International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unforeseen Gastrointestinal Events Following Antituberculous Therapy <p>Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder, affecting human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The exact etiology is unknown, and some drugs are implicated in causing this condition. We report a case of drug induced eosinophilic enteritis, caused by antituberculosis therapy (ATT). The cessation of ATT induced clinical remission and symptoms were reproduced on drug re-challenge, which corroborated our diagnosis.</p> Sandheep Janardhanan Saji John Varghese Ashfaq Ahmed Benoy Sebastian Sunil Mathai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 34 39 Evaluation and Descriptive Study of Pre- and Postoperative Anxiety and Depression in General Surgery (Prospective Study over 6 Months) <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Hospitalization is a common experience today. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012, the global volume of surgical procedures performed was estimated at 312.9 million operations. Addition to the physical consequences of surgery, patients may also experience anxiety and depression. The primary objective of our study is to assess pre- and postoperative anxiety and depression on general surgery wards and to identify possible associations between the anxiety and depression component and the characteristics of the population.</p> <p><strong>Materiels and Methods: </strong>This is a prospective study following 130 patients of the general surgery department of the Ibn Rochd center of Casablanca over a 6 months period from January 2017 to June 2017.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>The average age of our patients was 52.88 +/- 14.22 years with a female predominance of 60.8% against 39.2% male, that is to say a sex-ratio of 0.6. According to the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the majority of our patients were more anxious preoperatively than postoperatively, 48.5% of patients had moderate to severe anxiety preoperatively and 46.2 had mild anxiety postoperatively. According to the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS), a large proportion of patients (75.4%) were anxious about surgery and anesthesia and 24.6% were non-anxious, 50.8% had an avid desire to have necessary information related to the surgery they were going to undergo and the course of the anesthesia, 23.3% had a moderate desire and 16.9% of patients refused to have information. Regarding depression, the majority of patients were depressed preoperatively compared to postoperatively, according to HAM-D, 59.2% of patients had a depressive disorder preoperatively and 49.2% were depressed postoperatively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Anxiety and depression had a high prevalence in the general surgery department which is due to several factors such as age, diagnosis, surgical history, length of hospitalization, etc. This requires ongoing assessment and management because of the direct impact of this component on patient recovery.</p> Driss Erguibi Abdessamad Elazhary Amine Lamris Amal hajri Rachid Boufettal Saad rifki el jai Farid Chehab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-08-23 2021-08-23 30 33 Evaluation of the effect of Jathropha interrigima (Euphorbiaceae) on Hepatic Function of Male Albino Wistar Rats Exposed to Lead <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of <em>Jathropha interrigima</em> on hepatic function of male Albino Wistar rats exposed to lead.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study is an experimental study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between March 2020 and December 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 30 male Albino Wistar rats that weighed between 140-210g were used for this study. This study was done in three phases: Acute, Sub-chronic and Chronic phases and <em>Jathropha interrigima</em> extract was given to the rats as a prophylaxis (PRE) within the three phases and as a therapeutic (POST) substance within the three phases. Blood samples were collected at the end of each phase for both PRE and POST by cardiac puncture and separated into microvials tubes for the spectrophotometric evaluation of total protein, albumin, Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using a Selectra Pro-S automated chemistry analyzer. Liver tissues were also harvested for histological studies using haematoxilin stain. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22.0 and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that for the Acute Phase, the rats exposed to Lead (Treatment Group) given the Jathropha extract prophylactically(PRE) had mean Total protein level(40 ± 4.00g/l) which was significantly lower than the positive control (64.0 ± 0.01g/l) and the Negative control(66.0 ± 2.80g/l); Mean AST level(109.7±13.80iu/l) was significantly lower than the Positive control ( 124.0±2.80iu/l) and the Negative control(154.0 ±2.80iu/l) whereas for those given the Jathropha extract therapeutically (POST) had mean Albumin level (33.3 ± 1.53g/l) which was significantly lower than the negative control (37.0 ± 6.83). In the Sub-chronic phase, Rats in the PRE had Total Protein in TG (49.7 ± 1.53) was significantly lower than the NC and PC; AST( 82.7±4.04iu/l) and ALT( 49.0 ± 3.61) in the TG were significantly higher than in the PC and NC whereas those in POST had mean Total protein level( 66.0 ± 1.73)and Mean Albumin level( 34.0± 1.00)which were significantly higher than PC and NC; mean AST (54.0±2.00), Mean ALT( 34.3±2.08) and Mean ALP( 33.0±1.73) which significantly lower than PC and NC. A similar result occurred at the chronic phases for both PRE and POST. Histological examination also showed inflammatory infiltrates in the PRE and mitotic activity in the POS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study indicate that exposure to Lead caused a hepatic injury and <em>Jathropha</em> <em>interrigima</em> may have the potential to heal or reverse the injurious effect if given as a therapy.</p> M. J. Andy-Nwokocha E. O. Nwachuku E. S. Bartimaeus C. C. Obunwo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 1 8 A Liver Manifestation; Hepatic Cirrhosis and its Management through Electro-Homoeopathy: An Overview <p>Hepatic Cirrhosis is recognized by the formation of regenerative nodules in liver parenchyma bounded by fibrous septa consequent to chronic liver injury. Cirrhosis occurs because of necrosis of liver cells followed by fibrosis and nodule formation. The liver organization becomes abnormal and interferes with liver blood flow and function, and ultimately leads to portal hypertension and hepatocytic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases represent a noteworthy health problem across the globe with liver cirrhosis. The exact prevalence of cirrhosis worldwide was obscure due to the clinical continuum ranging from indolent, asymptomatic to complete liver decompensation. Thus, continual inputs through a series of research considering various conventional and certain earlier techniques in background, along this thrust medical area, led an emerging and medically most precise an alternate technique, namely, Electro-Homoeopathic Medical Science that has been currently in practice by several practitioners in India revealing fascinating outcome without any significant post therapeutic physiological and/or biochemical side effect as well as risk factor. The efficacy of electrohomeopathy treatment for liver disease was successfully evaluated over a 60-day period based on improved subjective parameters and hematological investigations. The result of this survey provides new information on the development and establishment of an increasingly advanced version of the electro-homeopathic system for a precise diagnosis revealing a specific root cause and smooth-running management of Liver Disease as well as its manifestation.</p> Ajit Singh Sanjay Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-16 2021-06-16 9 19 Platelets in Chronic Liver Disease: Beyond Numbers <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Thrombocytopenia, a complication of Chronic Liver Disease (CLD), is considered to be a marker of advanced disease and an independent predictor of mortality. But this is disputable and hence is this study 1. To find out prevalence of thrombocytopenia in CLD; 2. To find out association with severity of liver disease and thrombocytopenia.</p> <p><strong>Materials And Methods: </strong>This was a descriptive study analyzing CLD patients diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, serological and radiological evaluation in our institution between March 2019 and December 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 48 patients; M: F 43:5; mean age 51.7±12.4 years; Thrombocytopenia: Mild (149999 – 75000/mm<sup>3</sup>) in 45.8%, moderate (74999 – 50000/mm<sup>3</sup>) in 12.5% and severe (&lt; 49999/mm<sup>3</sup>) in 8.3%. There was no association of thrombocytopenia with severity indices like Child-Pugh Class (C. P. C.) and Model for End-stage Liver Disease – Sodium (MELD-Na) Score.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in CLD is 66.6% in this study. Thrombocytopenia is not associated with severity of disease. This necessitates larger studies and analyzing the factors other than number of platelets. This includes 1. functional status of platelets (thrombocythemia) 2. In a stable CLD, haemostasis and coagulation pathways achieve a delicate “rebalance state” (new normal) which may be disturbed even by trivial insult. 3. Platelets also secrete platelet derived growth factor, transforming growth factor β, hepatocyte growth factor which can influence liver fibrosis and regeneration.</p> Purushothaman Padmanabhan Nagendram Dinakaran Vamsi Chaitanya Gude Syed Mohammed Akbar Hassan Ravi Rajan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-13 2021-07-13 20 29