Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Disease Burden, Management, and Future Perspectives

Peter Jerome Ishmael Villete Paulino *

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanguard University, Costa Mesa, California, US State.

Kimberly Morton Cuthrell

Saint James School of Medicine, Illinois, United States of America.

Nikolaos Tzenios

Public Health and Medical Research, Charisma University, Grace Bay, Turks and Caicos Islands, UK.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant and pertinent human ailment linked to a modified way of life, characterized by a fast increasing occurrence and prevalence in the majority of countries worldwide. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to significant health problems at various stages of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and related consequences such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and decompensation (such as bleeding from esophageal varices, accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, and impaired brain function due to liver dysfunction). In addition to hepatic problems, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients frequently experience the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the current  comprehension of the fundamental pathways in relation to NAFLD is growing, the precise pathophysiological impact of NAFLD on T2D and CVD remains incompletely known. One of the main theories suggests that a sub-clinical pro-inflammatory milieu is caused by lipotoxicity, insulin resistance (IR), and the intestinal microbiota. The primary foundation of the treatment involves lifestyle adjustment, which encompasses weight reduction, nutritional intervention, and consistent physical activity. While achieving this aim may be challenging for numerous patients, it is advisable for treating physicians to recommend and provide support for it. A variety of therapy choices, ranging from non-invasive management and medical intervention to surgical techniques (such as bariatric surgery), have been created with different results, particularly for the non-invasive treatment methods. The range of innovative therapeutic techniques is extensive, with several intriguing candidates. Collectively, NAFLD represents a significant healthcare concern that is projected to escalate in the future. Consequently, it is imperative for physicians from many disciplines to enhance their understanding of this condition to effectively address it with their patients.

Keywords: Non alcoholic, liver dysfunction, fatty liver disease, lipotoxicity, disease burden


How to Cite

Paulino, P. J. I. V., Cuthrell, K. M., & Tzenios , N. (2024). Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Disease Burden, Management, and Future Perspectives. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 7(1), 1–13. Retrieved from https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/92

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