Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of the Anti Ulcer Activity of Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) Leaf Extracts in Wistar Rats

Nomo Honore

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

Tembe Estella Fokunang *

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

Bayaga Herve

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

Njinkio Nono Borgia

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

Mbacham Wilfred

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

Charles Fokunang

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Peptic ulcer disease is a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract that results from an imbalance between protective and aggressive factors of the gastric mucosa. Many synthetic drugs are used for the treatment of this disease, but they are costly and exhibit limited efficacy, and could cause adverse effects. Hence, the present study aimed to screen the phytochemicals and evaluate the anti-ulcer activities of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H.J. Lam leaf extracts in Wistar rats. Four leaf extracts obtained by aqueous cold maceration, hydroethanol maceration, infusion and decoction respectively were used. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening was carried out and an ulceration model based on HCl/ethanol mixture (150mM/60%) was used to evaluate the gastroprotective activity in vivo at a dose of 500mg/kg. The physiological and biochemical parameters of the homogenate were evaluated. Qualitative analysis showed the presence of total polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, flavonols, saponosides, coumarins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and ascorbic acid. Quantitative analysis showed a predominance of flavonoids followed by flavonols, polyphenols and tannins. The extracts obtained by hydro-ethanolic, and aqueous maceration showed the best gastroprotective activity with percentages of 81.61% and 75% respectively. The aqueous extracts obtained by infusion and decoction showed a low activity (52% and 26% respectively). The biochemical analysis of the gastric juice content showed a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, SOD, GSH) and a pronounced decrease in MDA in all groups. We concluded that D. edulis leaf extracts showed potential bioactive metabolites predorminantly of flavonoids, flavonols, polyphenols and tanins, numerous natural antioxidants that was responsible for the observed gastroprotective activity and this plant could be a promising source of a more effective and safer antiulcer drug. This study also confirm the use of D. edulis as a category 1 improved traditional medicine, while in development for a category 2 phytomedicine.

Keywords: Dacryodes edulis, antiulcer, phytochemicals, antioxidant, wistar rat


How to Cite

Honore , Nomo, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Bayaga Herve, Njinkio Nono Borgia, Mbacham Wilfred, and Charles Fokunang. 2023. “Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of the Anti Ulcer Activity of Dacryodes Edulis (Burseraceae) Leaf Extracts in Wistar Rats”. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 6 (1):53-66. https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/76.

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