Evaluation of 2, 2-dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (Sniper) Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in New Zealand White Rabbits
International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology,
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate chronic hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (Sniper) in New Zealand white rabbits.
Study Design: This is an experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt animal house, Rivers State Teaching Hospital and Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation Hospital Laboratory, between January, 2020 and April 2020.
Methodology: Thirty six (36) male New Zealand white rabbits weighing approximately 1.0mg/kg were used for the study. The rabbits were kept in a spacious and well-ventilated cage at room temperature, under natural circadian rhythm and were allowed to acclimatize for fourteen (14) days. They were divided into three (3) groups of four (4) rabbits each with four (4) matched control. For the chronic oral study, 10% of the LD50 (details not included) which is 0.005mg/kg dose of sniper, mixed with 1.0ml of distilled water was administered orally to the rabbits daily for the stipulated period of 30, 60 and 90 days. The matched control rabbits received only feed and water ad libitum during the study. Whilst, for the chronic inhalation study, 10% of the LD50 dose of sniper which is equivalent to 0.05mg/m3 dose of sniper was mixed with 1.0ml of distilled water, sprayed in the closed cages. At day 30, 60 and 90, 4 rabbits were sacrificed each from the chronic oral and inhalation study groups and the matched control group. Blood specimens were collected at each stage, about 5.0mls of blood was collected into lithium heparin specimen container for the investigation of liver function tests. Serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total and conjugated bilirubin, (TB and CB) total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehide (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. SPSS version 22.0 was used for statistical analysis and p values less than .05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: The results showed that there were significant increases in the activity of ALT, AST, ALP, MDA and LDH (at p<.05), when values for the controls were compared with those of rabbits administered with sniper. Significant decreases (at p<.05) were also observed in TP, ALB and TAC levels after sniper administration.
Conclusion: Chronic inhalation and oral administration of sniper led to hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, toxic effects were more in rabbits administered through the oral route and increased with period of administration.
- 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (Sniper)
- New Zealand white rabbits.
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