Main Article Content
Aims: This study was conducted to detect and type hepatitis B virus circulating among prospective blood donors at a tertiary healthcare Facility in Central Nigeria
Study Design: The study was a cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Keffi, Nasarawa State, between January and October, 2018.
Methodology: Blood sample (3 ml) was collected from each of the 400 consenting blood donors at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nasarawa State and their socio-demographic information obtained using structured questionnaires. The sera were screened for HBV infection serologic markers (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb) using HBV-5 rapid panel test kit (CTK Biotech. Inc. San Diego, USA). All samples positive for HBsAg, HBeAg and those negative for HBsAg but positive for HBcAb were genotyped by PCR using type-specific primers. Data collected were analysed using Smith’s Statistical Package (version 2.8, California, USA) and P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Of the 400 blood donors screened, 31(7.8%) were positive for HBsAg, 113(28.3%) for HBsAb, 11(2.8%) for HBeAg, 18(4.5%) for HBeAb and 78(19.5%) for HBcAb. A total of 34 samples (HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative but HBcAb-positive) were genotyped and of these, 32 (94.1%) had HBV-DNA bands while the remaining 2(5.9%) samples were not-typable. Furthermore, Of the 32 HBV-DNA-positive samples successfully genotyped, 17(53%) had single HBV genotype infection while the remaining 15 (46.8%) had mixed HBV genotype infection. In relation to frequency of occurrence, single HBV/E genotype was predominant (37.5%), followed HBV/F (9.4%) and HBV/A (6.3%). Meanwhile, double mixed-infection of HBV genotypes B/E had the highest rate (18.8%), followed by B/D (12.5%) and A/B (3.1%). Finally, triple infections with both A/B/D and A/B/E genotypes occurred at the same rate of 6.3%
Conclusion: This study reported the circulation of HBV genotypes A, B, D, E and F in the study population with predominance of genotype E and a novel appearance of genotype F in Nigeria. These findings are of public health significance particularly in antiviral therapy.
Oti BV, Pennap GR, Ngari HR. HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence among pregnant women accessing antenatal care in a tertiary healthcare facility in Central Nigeria. Hepatology and Pancreatic Science, 2018;2-110–113
Thio CL, Hawkins, CA. Hepatitis b virus and hepatitis delta virus, mandell, douglas and bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases, 8th ed., Elsevier Inc. 2014;1815–1839.
Mbaawuaga EM, Iroegba CU, Ike AC. Hepatitis B virus serological patterns in Benue State, Nigeria. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2014;4:1-10
Mohammed HI, Pennap GR, Oti VB, Adoga MP. Markers of hepatitis B virus infection in a subset of young people in Central Nigeria. Scientific Africa. 2019;5:e00121
Odimayo MS, Nwadioha SI, Ajayi AO. Hepatitis B serologic markers among individuals with hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity in Makurdi Nigeria. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Science. 2016;6(5):340-344
Rahman MA, Hakim F, Ahmed M, Ahsan CR, Nesa J. Prevalence of genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis B virus in Bangladeshi population. Springer Plus, 2016;5(278):1-8.
Croagh CM, Desmond PV, Bell SJ. Genotypes and viral variants in chronic hepatitis B: A review of epidemiology and clinical relevance. World Journal of Hepatology. 2015;7:289-303.
Sousa DD, Silva CR, Lima JW, Barros JA, Nascimento IA, Souza VC et al. Phylogenetic analysis and genotype distribution of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Roraima, Brazil. Journal of the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Sao Paulo. 2018; 60:e35
Cavinta L, Sun J, May A. A new isolate of hepatitis B virus from the Philippines possibly representing a new subgenotype C6. Journal of Medical Virology. 2009;81(6):983–987
Lusida MI, Nugrahaputra VE, Soetjipto K, Handajani R, Nagano-Fujii M, Sasayama M et al. Novel subgenotypes of hepatitis B virus genotypes C and D in Papua, Indonesia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2008;46(7):2160–2166.
Mulders MN, Vernard V, Njayou M, Edorh AP, Bola AO, Kehinde MO. Low genetic diversity despite hyperendemicity of HBV genotypes E through West Africa. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2004;190(2):400–408
Moussa D, Bengue AKM, Sevede D, Gazoa SKN, Dosso M. Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus circulating in asymptomatic and symptomatic carriers in Côte d’Ivoire from 2010 to 2013. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2014;4(8):831–840.
Ahmad AE, Bakari AG, Musa BO, Mustapha SK, Jamoh BY, Abdullahi IN. Pattern of prevalent hepatitis B virus genotypes in Zaria, Nigeria. Nigeria Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2019;26:80-86.
Pennap GR, Mohammed HI, Oti VB. Genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus in a subset of infected young people in central Nigeria. Scientific African Journal. 2019;5:e00122
Doumbia M, Kouassi A, Bengue M, Sevede D, Kakou S, Gazoa N et al. Molecular characterization of HBV circulating in asymptomatic and symptomatic carriers in Côte d’Ivoire from 2010 to 2013. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2014;4(8):831-840
Forbi JC, Ben-Ayed Y, Xia GL, Vaughan G, Drobeniuc J, Switzer WM et al. Disparate distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in four sub-Saharan African countries, Journal of Clinical Virology. 2013;58(1):59–66.
Hübschen JM, Mbah PO, Forbi JC, Otegbayo JA, Olinger CM, Charpentier E et al. Detection of a new subgenotype of hepatitis B virus genotype A in Cameroon but not in neighbouring Nigeria. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2011;17(1)-88–94.
Mohammed HI , Alaku S, Pennap GR. Genotypic characterization of hepatitis B virus among human immunodeficiency virus patients at a tertiary health care facility in North Central Nigeria World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews. 2020;06(02):187–192.
Lin CL, Kao JH. The clinical implications of hepatitis B virus genotype: Recent advances. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2011; 26(1):123-130
Akwa VL, Binbol NL, Samaila KL, Marcus ND. Geographical perspective of Nasarawa State, Onaive printing and publishing company ltd, Keffi, 2007; 503.
Naing L, Winn T, Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Archives of Orofacial Sciences. 2006;1:9-14.
Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Low price edition. Cambridge University press, USA, 2010; 297.
Zaman H, Rahman A, Yasmin M. Epidemiology of hepatitis virus in Bangladesh; prevalence, among general population, risk factors and genotype distribution. Genes. 2018;9(11):97-99.
Khaled IA, Mahmoud OM, Saleh AF, Baioumi EA. Prevalence of HBV genotypes in Egypt among hepatitis patients. American Journal of Science. 2010;6:185-190
Al-Shaer L, Abdul Rahman M, John TJ, AlHashimi A. Trends in prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of major transfusion-transmissible viral infections in United Arab Emirates blood donors: Impact of individual-donation nucleic acid testing, 2004 through 2009. Transfusion Medicine. 2012;52:2300-2309.
Pandey P, Tiwari AK, Dara RC, Aggarwal G, Rawat G, Raina V. A comprehensive serological and supplemental evaluation of hepatitis B “seroyield” blood donors: A cross-sectional study from a tertiary healthcare center in India. Asian Journal of Transfusion Science. 2015;9:189-194.
Al-Suraifi AS, Al-Rubaie AD, Al-Mayahie SM, Al-Abedy NMM. Unusual HBV mixed genotype infections among hepatitis type B Iraqi patients in Wasit province/Iraq. International Journal of Biomedical Science. 2016;2:1 7.
Chen JD, Liu CJ, Lee PH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, Kao JH. Hepatitis B genotypes correlate with tumor recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2004;2:64-71
Olinger CM, Venard V, Njayou M, Oyefolu AO, Maïga I, Kemp AJ. Phylogenetic analysis of the precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus genotypes E and A in West Africa: New subtypes, mixed infections and recombinations. Journal of General Virology. 2006;87:1163-1173.
Odemuyiwa SO, Mulders MN, Oyedele OI. Phylogenetic analysis of new HBV isolates from Nigeria supports endemcity of genotype E in West Africa. Journal of Medical Virology. 2011;65(3):463-469.
Forbi JC, Vaughan G, Purdy MA, Campo DS, Xia GI. Epidemic history and evolutionary dynamics of hepatitis B virus infection in two remote communities in rural Nigeria. PLoS One. 2010;5(7):1678-1687.
Faleye TO, Adewumi OM, Ifeorah IM, Akere A, Bakarey AS, Omoruyi EC et al. Detection and circulation of hepatitis B virus immune escape mutants among asymptomatic community dwellers in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Infectious Disease. 2015;39: 102-109.