Hepatitis B and C Status and Associated Risk Factors among Migrant Female Head Porters [Kayayei] within La-Nkwantanang Madina Municipality, Ghana

Main Article Content

Lawrence Quaye
Yussif Adams
Peter Paul M. Dapare
Simon Bannison Bani
Moses Banyeh
Osman Samira


Aim: This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, prevalence and associated risk factors of viral hepatitis among migrant female head porters (Kayayei) in La-Nkwantanang Madina municipality of the Greater Accra region, Ghana.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at three market centers [Atima, La-Nkwantanang and Madina markets] within the La-Nkwantanang Madina municipality of the Greater Accra region, Ghana.

Methodology: A total of 125 kayayei residing and working in La-Nkwantanang Madina municipality were included at the time of the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions were adopted to collect demographic and knowledge data while blood samples were drawn from each participant for hepatitis B and C assays.

Results: Results from the study shows, prevalence of hepatitis B was 7.2% and that for hepatitis C was 6.4% respectively. One (0.8%) person was co-infected with hepatitis B and C virus. Majority (73.6%) of kayayei had no knowledge on viral hepatitis and its spread with risk factors associated with hepatitis virus were; unprotected sexual intercourse (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.032-8.288) and multiple sexual partners (OR = 5.23, 95% CI = 1.302-21.02).

Conclusion: Viral hepatitis infection is common among kayayei and the level of knowledge of this disease is low. The study recommends; regular sensitization on adolescent and reproduction health among these vulnerable group and educational programs on negative the effects of child labour extended to parents in northern Ghana to discourage their daughters from migrating to the cities for head porterage but rather stay in school. Again, future research prospects can look at prevalence of comorbidity of HIV and Hepatitis as well as human papillomaviruses (HPVs) among these vulnerable group.

Hepatitis b and c infection, female head porter (Kayayei), prevalence, Ghana

Article Details

How to Cite
Quaye, L., Adams, Y., Dapare, P. P. M., Bani, S. B., Banyeh, M., & Samira, O. (2020). Hepatitis B and C Status and Associated Risk Factors among Migrant Female Head Porters [Kayayei] within La-Nkwantanang Madina Municipality, Ghana. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 3(4), 1-12. Retrieved from https://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/30123
Original Research Article


Ziblim SD. Following the trails of the mother: Migration and reproductive health nexus-a case study of female porters in Accra. The Experiment. 2013;16(4):1145–59.

Yeboah MA, Appiah-Yeboah K. An examination of the cultural and socio-economic profiles of porters in Accra, Ghana. Nordic Journal of African Studies. 2009;18(1):21.

Dery DB, Brown C, Asante KP, Adams M, Dosoo D, Amenga-Etego S, et al. Patterns and seasonality of malaria transmission in the forest-savannah transitional zones of Ghana. Malaria Journal. 2010;9(1):314.

Baah-Ennumh TY, Adoma MO. The living conditions of female head porters in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Journal of Social and Development Sciences. 2012; 3(7):229-44.

Opare JA. Kayayei: The women head porters of southern Ghana. Journal of social development in Africa. 2003;18(2).

Yeboah MA. Urban poverty, livelihood, and gender: Perceptions and experiences of porters in Accra, Ghana. Africa Today. 2010;56(3):42-60.

Dongdem JT, Kampo S, Soyiri IN, Asebga PN, Ziem JB, Sagoe K. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana (2009). BMC Research Notes. 2012;5(1):115.

Golden M. Transport proteins as indices of protein status. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1982;35(5):1159-65.

Afari E, Appawu M, Dunyo S, Baffoe-WilmotA, Nkrumah F. Malaria infection, morbidity and transmission in two ecological zones Southern Ghana. African Journal of Health Sciences. 1995;2(2):312-5.

Kwankye SO, Anarfi JK, Tagoe CA, Castaldo A. Coping strategies of independent child migrants from northern Ghana to southern cities. Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisa-tion and Poverty Working Paper Series, University of Sussex; 2007.

Shamsu-Deen Z. Migration and Health among Female Porters (Kayayei) in Accra, Ghana: University of Ghana; 2015.

Kochar D, Agarwal P, Kochar S, Jain R, Rawat N, Pokharna R, et al. Hepatocyte dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. QJM. 2003;96(7):505-12.

Mahama C, Antwi A, editors. Land and property markets in Ghana. World Urban Forum; 2006.

Candan F, Alagözlü H, Poyraz Ö, Sümer H. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection in barbers in the Sivas region of Turkey. Occupational Medicine. 2002; 52(1):31-4.

Shamsu-Deen Z. Migration and health nexus: A case of female porters (Kayayei) in Accra, Ghana. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2013;3(3):103-9.

Osazuwa F, Victor Obinna O, Favour Chika A. Nijerya Abaji Bölgesi Kırsal Toplumunda, Gebe Kadınlar Arasında, İnsan İmmün Yetmezlik Virüsü, Hepatit B ve C Sero-epidemiyolojisi. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin. 2012;11(4).

Ott J, Stevens G, Groeger J, Wiersma S. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: New estimates of age-specific HBsAg seroprevalence and endemicity. Vaccine. 2012;30(12):2212-9.

World Health Organization. Global hepatitis Report, 2017; 2017.

Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ. Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. The Lancet. 2015;386(10003):1546-55.

World Health Organization. WHO Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021 Towards Ending Viral Hepatitis; 2016.

Walana W, Ahiaba S, Hokey P, Vicar EK, Acquah SEK, Der EM, et al. Sero-prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among blood donors in the Kintampo Municipal Hospital, Ghana; 2014.

Anarfi JK. Vulnerability to sexually transmitted disease: Street children in Accra; 1997.

Ellis AA, Traore S, Doumbia S, Dalglish SL, Winch PJ. Treatment actions and treatment failure: Case studies in the response to severe childhood febrile illness in Mali. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1): 946.

Osei E, Niyilapah J, Kofi Amenuvegbe G. Hepatitis B Knowledge, Testing, and Vaccination History among Undergraduate Public Health Students in Ghana. BioMed research international. 2019;2019.

International Labour Organization. Global Alliance Against Forced Labour. ILO, Geneva; 2005.

Albert C, Davia MA. Education is a key determinant of health in Europe: A comparative analysis of 11 countries. Health Promotion International. 2010; 26(2):163-70.

Chou T-C. Drug combination studies and their synergy quantification using the Chou-Talalay method. Cancer Research. 2010;70(2):440-6.

Viner RM, Ozer EM, Denny S, Marmot M, Resnick M, Fatusi A, et al. Adolescence and the social determinants of health. Lancet. 2012;379(9826):1641-52.

Baker JK, Seltzer MM, Greenberg JS. Longitudinal effects of adaptability on behavior problems and maternal depression in families of adolescents with autism. Journal of Family Psychology. 2011;25(4):601.

Biadgo B, Shiferaw E, Woldu B, Alene KA, Melku M. Transfusion-transmissible viral infections among blood donors at the North Gondar district blood bank, northwest Ethiopia: A three year retrospective study. PloS One. 2017;12(7):e0180416.

Abdulai MA, Baiden F, Adjei G, Owusu-Agyei S. Low level of Hepatitis B knowledge and awareness among pregnant women in the Kintampo North Municipality: implications for effective disease control. Ghana Medical Journal. 2016;50(3):157-62.

Mkandawire P, Richmond C, Dixon J, Luginaah IN, Tobias J. Hepatitis B in Ghana's upper west region: A hidden epidemic in need of national policy attention. Health & Place. 2013;23:89- 96.

Alter MJ, Coleman PJ, Alexander WJ, Kramer E, Miller JK, Mandel E, et al. Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. JAMA. 1989;262(9):1201-5.

Deng Q, Pan Y, Wang C, Li F, Lv S, Hu S, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B in Hua County, Henan Province. Beijing da xue xue bao Yi xue ban= Journal of Peking University Health sciences. 2013;45(6): 965-70.

Gogos C, Fouka K, Nikiforidis G, Avgeridis K, Sakellaropoulos G, Bassaris H, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection in the general population and selected groups in South-Western Greece. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2003; 18(6):551-7.

Kane M. Global programme for control of hepatitis B infection. Vaccine. 1995;13: S47-S9.

Dzidzinyo K. Factors Associated With Hepatitis-B Infection Among Krachi Senior High School Students In The Krachi West District Of The Volta Region: University of Ghana; 2017.

Yazigi N, Balistreri W. Viral Hepatitis In Kliegman RM, Behrman RV, Jenson HB, Stanton F. Nelson Textbook of Pediatric 18thed. Philadelphia WB Saunders; 2007.

Roberts A. Peripheral accumulation in the world economy: A cross-national analysis of the informal economy. International Journal of Comparative Sociology. 2013; 54(5-6):420-44.

Hilson G. Creating rural informality: The Case of Artisanal Gold Mining in Sub-Saharan Africa. SAIS Review of International Affairs. 2013;33(1):51-64.