Hepatotoxic effect of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit in Wistar Rats

Main Article Content

Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu
Prince C. Unekwe
Augustine I. Airaodion
Ifeoma N. Nweke
Uloaku Ogbuagu

Abstract

Background: Xylopia aethiopica fruit has been reported to possess high medicinal value. Thus, people use it without any regard for its toxicity.

Aim: This study is therefore aimed at investigating its toxicity on the liver of Wistar rats.

Methodology: The fruits of Xylopia aethiopica were obtained from new market in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria and were authenticated. They were air-dried and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as solvent. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was determined using standard method. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Animals in groups A, B, C, and D were administered 129.62, 259.23, 388.85 and 518.46 mg/kg body weight of X. aethiopica fruit extract respectively, while those in group E received normal feeds and water only. The administration was done once daily for 28 days via oral route. Hepatic indices were determined using standard methods.

Results: No significant difference was observed when the activities of ALT and AST in animals treated with lower doses of the extract were compared with those in the control group. A significant increase was however observed in the activities of ALT and AST in animals treated with higher doses of the extract when compared with those in the control group. ALP activity was observed to increase in experimental animals when compared with those of the control animals. This elevation was however not significant when animals treated with 129.62 mg/kg body weight of extract were compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of total protein and albumin in animals treated with lower doses of the extract when compared with that of the control group at P<0.05. A significant increase was however observed in the concentrations of total protein and albumin in animals treated with higher doses of the extract when compared with those in the control group. The concentration of globulin was only significant when animals treated with259.23 and 518.46 mg/kg body weight of extract were compared with those of the control animals. The extract was observed to inhibit the activities of amylase and lipase respectively in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: This present study showed that extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruit is hepatotoxic especially at high dosage. Therefore, its use in folklore medicine should be discouraged.

Keywords:
Hepatotoxic, high dosage, liver enzymes, Xylopia aethiopica fruit.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ogbuagu, E. O., Unekwe, P. C., Airaodion, A. I., Nweke, I. N., & Ogbuagu, U. (2021). Hepatotoxic effect of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit in Wistar Rats. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 4(1), 1-16. Retrieved from http://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/30128
Section
Original Research Article

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