Hepatoprotective Potency of Ethanolic Extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seed against Acute Ethanol-induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

Main Article Content

Augustine I. Airaodion
Ada C. Ngwogu
John A. Ekenjoku
Kenneth O. Ngwogu


Aim: Hepatoprotective potency of ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seed against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: G. kola seeds were purchased from a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria. The seeds were chopped to smaller pieces after the outer coats were removed. They were air-dried and finally ground to fine powder using a blender. The powder was extracted using ethanol. 20 adult Wistar rats with body weight between 150 and 180 g were used for this study. They were acclimatized for 7 days during which they were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. They were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered normal saline solution while those in groups 3 and 4 were administered G. kola extract for 28 days. The animals were administered the extract and saline solution at a dose of 4 mL per 100 g body weight 12 hourly via oral route. At the end of the treatment, they were fasted overnight and animals in groups 2 and 4 were exposed to a single dose of 70% ethanol at 12 mL/kg body weight to induce oxidative stress. After 12 hours of ethanol administration, the animals were anaesthetized using diethyl ether and were sacrificed. Biochemical parameters were determined using standard methods.

Results: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) but decreased reduced glutathione (GSH).  These effects were regulated by G. kola administration due to its phytochemical content and antioxidant potential.

Conclusion: Results from this present study have shown that G. kola possesses hepatoprotective potency against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

G. kola seed, hepatoprotective potency, ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

Article Details

How to Cite
I. Airaodion, A., C. Ngwogu, A., A. Ekenjoku, J., & O. Ngwogu, K. (2020). Hepatoprotective Potency of Ethanolic Extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seed against Acute Ethanol-induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 3(2), 1-10. Retrieved from http://journalirjgh.com/index.php/IRJGH/article/view/30113
Original Research Article


Hutchson J, Dalziel JM. Flora of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. H.M.S.O London. 1956;8(11):295.

Plowden CC. A manual of plants names. 3rd edition. London. George Ltd: 1972;239.

Burkhill HM. The useful plants of west tropical Africa volume 2; 1986.
Available:http://www.aluka.org –

a digital library of scholarly resources from and about Africa. On 10/11/2011

Ofusori DA. Ayoka AO, Adelekun AE, Falana BA, Adeeyo OA, Ajeigbe KO, Yusuf UA. Microanatomical effects of ethanolic extract of Garcinia Kola on the lungs of Swiss Albino Mice. The Internet Journal of Pulmonary Medicine. 2008;10:1.

Aniche GN, Uwakwe GU. Potential use of Garcinia kola as a hop substitute in lager beer brewing. World Journal of Micro-biolology and Biotechnology. 1990; (6):323–486.

Bnouham M, Abderrahim Z, Hassane M, Abdelhafid T, Abdelkhaleq L. Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity – A review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990-2000). International Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism. 2006; 12(14):1–25.

Anyensu ES. Medical Plants of West Africa. Reference Publication Incoporated; Algonac, MI: 1978;162.

Iwu MM. Pharmacognotical Profile of Selected Medicinal plants. In: Handbook of African Medicinal plants. Chemical Rubber Company press, Boca Raton, Florida: 1993;183.

Iwu MM. In plant flavonoids in Biology and Medicine. V. Cody, E. Middleton and J.B Harbone eds. Ala R. Liss. New York: 1986;485.

Ibironke GF, Olaleye SB, Balogun O, Aremu DA. Antiucerogenic effect of diets containing seeds of Garcinia kola (Hekel) Phytotherapy Research. 1997;4(11):312-313.

Igboko AO. Phytochemical Studies in Garcinia kola. Hekel. Msc. Thesis, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria, (Unpublished); 1983.

Braide VD, Vittrotio G. Histological alterations by a diet containing seeds of Garcinia kola: Effects on liver, kidney and intestine in the rat. In: Gedenbaurs Morphology. Jahrb, Leipzig. 1989;1334:95-101.

Maduinyi I. Biochemical and pharmiocol studies of the active principles of the seeds of Garcinia kola. M. Sc Thesis, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria. (Unpublished); 1983.

Eka OU. Studies in the feasibility of replacing hop by other bittering substances in brewing. Nigerian Journal of Microbial. 1984;4(1-2):43-51.

Jena BS, Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah KK. Chemistry and biochemistry of hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia. Journal of Agriculture, Food and Chemisry. 2002;50(1):10-22.

Masullo M, Bassarello C, Suzuki H, Pizza C, Piacente S. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones and an unusual polyisoprenylated tetracyclic xanthone from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia. Journal of Agriculture, Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008;56(13):5205-5210.

Koshy AS, Anila L, Vijayalakshmi NR. Flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia lower lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2001; 72(3):289-294.

Lieber CS. Ethnic and gender differences in ethanol metabolism, Alcohol. Clinical and Exerimental Research. 2000;24(4): 417–418.

Wu D, Cederbaum AI. Alcohol, oxidative stress, and free radical damage, Alcohol Research of Health. 2003;27:277–284.

Ronis MJ, Hakkak R, Korourian S, Albano E, Yoon S, Ingelman-Sundberg M, Lindros KO, Badger TM. Alcoholic liver disease in rats fed ethanol as part of oral or intragastric low-carbohydrate liquid diets. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2004; 229(4):351–360.

Lieber CS. Hepatic and other medical disorders of alcoholism: From pathogenesis to treatment. Journal of Studies of Alcohol. 1998;59(1):9–25.

Nadro MS, Arungbemi RM, Dahiru D. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. Tropical Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2007; 5(1):539–544.

Das SK, Vasudevan DM. Alcohol-induced oxidative stress, Life Science. 2007; 81(3):177–187.

Rahman T, Hosen I, Islam MT, Shekhar HU. Oxidative stress and human health. Advances in Bioscience and Bio-technology. 2012;3:997–1019.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharma-cognosy Review. 2010;4:118–126.

Han Y, Xu Q, Hu JN, Han XY, Li W, Zhao LC. Maltol, a food flavoring agent, attenuates acute alcohol-induced oxidative damage in mice. Nutrients. 2015;7(1):682–696.

Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for determination of serum glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamic pyruvate transaminase. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1957;28:56-58.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Adeniji AR, Agunbiade AP, Airaodion EO. Hepatoprotective effect of Parkia biglobosa on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2019;2(1):1-11.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu U, Airaodion EO. Therapeutic effect of methanolic extract of telfairia occidentalis leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(7):179- 189.

Towle HC, Kaytor EN, Shih HM. Regulation of the expression of lipogenic enzymes by carbohydrates. Annual Review of Nutrition. 1997;17:405-433

Zubay G, Schwartz D, Beckwith J. Mechanism of activation of catabolite- sensitive genes: A positive control system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1970;66(1):104-110.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Okoroukwu VN. Hepato-protective efficiency of ethanol Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera against hydrocarbon exposure. International Journal of advances in Herbal and Alternative Medicine. 2019;03(01):32-41.

Johnson PJ. The assessment of hepatic function and investigation of jaundice. In: Marshall, WJ, Bangert SK, editors. Clinical Biochemistry – Metabolic and Clinical Aspects. Churchill Livingstone, New York. 1995;217 236.

Oloyede OI, Afolabi AM. Antioxidant Potential of Garcinia Kola. Academic Research International. 2012;2(2):49-54.

Chinedu I, Uhegbu FO, Imo CK, Ifeanacho NG, Osuocha KU, Ibe C. Acute administration of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on daily blood glucose level and selected biochemical indices in longevity Wistar albino rats. International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology. 2013;1(2):7-12.

Wright PJ, Plummer DT. The use of urinary enzyme measurement to detect renal damage caused by Nephrotoxic compounds. Biochemistry and Pharma-cology. 1974;23:98-112.

Akanji MA, Olagoke OA, Oloyede OB. Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of the rat kidney cellular system. Toxicology. 1993; 81:173-179.

Oyenihi OR, Afolabi BA, Oyenihi AB, Ogunmokun OJ, Oguntibeju OO. Hepato- and neuro-protective effects of watermelon juice on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats. Toxicology Reports. 2016; 3:288–294.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ewa O, Ogbuagu U, Awosanya OO, Adekale OA. Ameliorative efficacy of methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in wistar rats. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019; 7(6):1-9.

Tiwari AK, Rao JM. Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic approaches of phytochemicals: Present status and future prospects. Current Science. 2002;83:30-38.

Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Airaodion EO. Prophylactic propensity of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in wistar rats. International Journal of Bio- Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(7): 37-46.

Airaodion AI, Akinmolayan JD, Ogbuagu EO, Esonu CE, Ogbuagu U. Preventive and therapeutic activities of methanolic extract of Talinum triangulare leaves against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(7): 85-96.

Yang SS, Huang CC, Chen JR, Chiu CL, Shieh MJ, Lin SJ, Yang SC. Effects of ethanol on antioxidant capacity in isolated rat hepatocytes. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2005;11(46):7272.