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Background: The growing number of diabetes coupled with the harsh side effects of some synthetic drugs has led to the increasing search for alternatives which are relatively cheap with minimal side effects.
Aim: This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic potential of alkaloid extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Methods: Fresh leaves of V. doniana and F. thonningii were obtained from a local market Nkwagu in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. They were washed thoroughly in running water to remove contaminants. They were separately air-dried at room temperature for two weeks. The dried leaves were pulverized to fine granules using manual grinder. Crude alkaloid was extracted using standard method. The acute oral toxicity of both plants was determined. Diabetes was induced in forty male rats intra peritoneally with alloxan at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight. The rats were grouped into eight groups of five animals per group: Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of V. doniana respectively, groups 3 and 4 were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of F. thonningii respectively, group 5 was treated with 100 mg/kg of V. doniana + 100 mg/kg of F. thonningii, group 6 was treated with 200 mg/kg of V. doniana + 200 mg/kg of F. thonningii, group 7 animals were not induced with alloxan and untreated (normal control) while group 8 were induced with alloxan but not treated (diabetic control). The extracts were administered to the animals orally for 30 days. The animal’s blood sugar levels and lipid profile were assayed using standard methods.
Results: Both extracts significantly reduced blood glucose level when compared with those of diabetic control at p<0.05. The extracts also favourably perturbed the lipid profile of animals.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that both V. doniana and F. thonningii leaves be potent antidiabetic property. They could also reduce the risk of obesity and hypertension due to its hypolipidemic effect.
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