Antidiabetic Potential of Alkaloid Extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii Leaves on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Main Article Content

O. C. Njoku
A. I. Airaodion
O. O. Awosanya
J. A. Ekenjoku
V. N. Okoroukwu
E. O. Ogbuagu
N. Nwachukwu
C.U. Igwe


Background: The growing number of diabetes coupled with the harsh side effects of some synthetic drugs has led to the increasing search for alternatives which are relatively cheap with minimal side effects.

Aim: This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic potential of alkaloid extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Fresh leaves of V. doniana and F. thonningii were obtained from a local market Nkwagu in Abakaliki local government area of Ebonyi State. They were washed thoroughly in running water to remove contaminants. They were separately air-dried at room temperature for two weeks. The dried leaves were pulverized to fine granules using manual grinder. Crude alkaloid was extracted using standard method. The acute oral toxicity of both plants was determined. Diabetes was induced in forty male rats intra peritoneally with alloxan at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight. The rats were grouped into eight groups of five animals per group: Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of V. doniana respectively, groups 3 and 4 were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of F. thonningii respectively, group 5 was treated with 100 mg/kg of V. doniana + 100 mg/kg of F. thonningii, group 6 was treated with 200 mg/kg of V. doniana + 200 mg/kg of F. thonningii, group 7 animals were not induced with alloxan and untreated (normal control) while group 8 were induced with alloxan but not treated (diabetic control). The extracts were administered to the animals orally for 30 days.  The animal’s blood sugar levels and lipid profile were assayed using standard methods.

Results: Both extracts significantly reduced blood glucose level when compared with those of diabetic control at p<0.05. The extracts also favourably perturbed the lipid profile of animals.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that both V. doniana and F. thonningii leaves be potent antidiabetic property. They could also reduce the risk of obesity and hypertension due to its hypolipidemic effect.

Vitex doniana, Ficus thoningii, blood glucose concentration, lipid profile, antidiabetic potential.

Article Details

How to Cite
Njoku, O. C., Airaodion, A. I., O. Awosanya, O., Ekenjoku, J. A., Okoroukwu, V. N., Ogbuagu, E. O., Nwachukwu, N., & Igwe, C. (2019). Antidiabetic Potential of Alkaloid Extracts from Vitex doniana and Ficus thonningii Leaves on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats. International Research Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2(2), 1-12. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Iwueke AV, Nwodo OFC, Okoli CO. Evaluation of the anti- inflammatory and analgesic activites of Vitex doniana leaves. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006; 5(20):1929-1935.

Xuxioa-Lung X, Buekens P, Vastardis S, Pridjian G. Periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2009;195:1086-1089.

Zhang ZJ, Davidson L, Eisenbarth G, Weiner HL. Suppression of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice by oral adminis-tration of porcine insulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995;88:10252–10256.

Mavlyanov SM, Islambekov SH, Karimdzhanov AK, Ismailov AI. Polyphenols of the fruits of some varieties of pomegranate growing in Uzbekistan. Chem Nat Comp. 1997;33:98–99.

Nwachukwu N, Iweala EEJ, Asoluka HO. Effects of ”lesser known” leafy vegetables (Vitexdonianaand corchorusoletorious) on the oxidative stress indices of albino rats. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2014;4(11):1293-1301.

Beentje HJ. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya. 1994; 5:7-11 [8].

Kilani AM. Antibacterial assessment of whole stem bark of Vitex doniana against some etero bactericease. Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5:958-960.

Abdulrahman FI. Studies in natural products chemistry: The Moraceae in African traditional medicine and manage-ment of psychiatry in Borno state. M.S.c. Thesis, University of Maidugiri, Maidugeri, Borno State., Nigeria; 1992.

Liu F, Fan H, Qiu J, Wang B, Zhang M, Gu N, Zhang C, Fei L, Pan X, Guo M, Chen R, Guo X. A paradox: Insulin inhibits expression and secretion of resistin which induces insulin resistance. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008;14(1):95-100.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa (2nd Edition) Spectrum Books, Nigeria. 1993;142-144.
[ISBN-13: 9789782462190]

Achigan EG, Fagbemissi RA, Vohou HT, Vodouhe RS, Coulibaly OA. Importance and practices of Egusi crops [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.); 2009.

Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some haemostatic plants in Edo State Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2001;8(2):203-208.

OECD. Guidelines for testing chemical, Acute Oral toxicities up and down produce. OECD Reports. 2001;425:1-26.

Dixon WJ. The up-and-down method. Neuroscience. Biohehav. Rev. 1991;15: 47-50.

Prince PSM, Menon VP. Antioxidant action of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Phytotherapy Res. 2001;15(3):213–8.

Airaodion AI, Airaodion EO, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Osemwowa EU. Effect of oral intake of African locust bean on fasting blood sugar and lipid profile of albino rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry. 2019;4(4):1-9.

Owoade AO, Adetutu A, Airaodion AI, Ogundipe OO. Toxicological assessment of the methanolic leaf extract of Bridelia ferrugelia. The Journal of Phytopharmaco-logy. 2018;7(5):419-424.

Owoade AO, Airaodion AI, Adetutu A, Akinyomi OD. Levofloxacin-induced dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2018;4(5):620-629.

Bruce RD. A confirmatory study of up-and-down method of acute oral toxicological testing. Fundamental Applied Toxicology. 1987;8:97-100.

American Society for testing and Materials. Standard test method for estimating Acute Oral Toxicity of Rats. American Society for Testing and Materials E. 116387, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 1987;84.

Mahmood S, Talat A, Karim S, Khurshid R, Zia A. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Pakistan Journal of Physiology. 2011;7:13-16.

Gans R, Bilo H, Donker A. The renal response to exogenous insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to blood pressure and cardiova-scular hormonal status. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;11:794-802.

Airaodion AI, Akinmolayan JD, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Ogbuagu U, Awosanya OO. Effect of methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves on hypo-glycemic and hypolipidaemic activities in albino rats. Asian Plant Research Journal. 2019;2(7):1-13.

Tanko Y, Sada NH, Mohammed KA, Jimoh M, Yerima HE, Mohammed A. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carallumadaizielii on serum electrolytes levels on fructose-induced diabetes in wistar rats. Ann. Biol. Res. 2013;4:157-161.

Airaodion AI, Adeniji AR, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Agunbiade AP. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activities of methanolic extract of Talinum triangulare leaves in wistar rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2019;11(5): 1-13.

Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Airaodion EO. Effect of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves on glycemic and lipidaemic indexes of wistar rats. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019;7(3): 1-14.

Dheer R, Bhatnagar P. A study of the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitis Linn. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2010;42:70-73.

King H. Epidemiology of glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes in women of childbearing age. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(Suppl 2):B9‐B13.

Florence NT, Theophile D, Desire DP, Bertin V. Anti-diabetic activities of methanol derived extract of Dorsteniapicta twigs in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian Journal of Traditional Medicine. 2007;2:140-148.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu U. Pharmaco-therapeutic effect of methanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves on glycemic and lipidemic indexes of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology. 2009;11(8): 1-17.

Djomeni PD, Tedong EA, Asongalem T, Dimo SD, Pierre K. Hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effect of root extracts of Cebiapentandra in normal and diabetic rats. African Journal of Traditional Complementary Alternative Method. 2006; 3:129-136.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ekenjoku JA, Ogbuagu U, Okoroukwu VN. Antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research. 2019;5(3):227-234.

Santaguida PL, Bilion C, Hunt D, Morrison K, Geistein H. Diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Summary of Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 128, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2008;80-94.

Murray M. Encyclopedia of national medicine. 2nd Edition. Prima Health Publishing, Rocking USA. 2000;401.

Igwe CU, Nwaogu L, Ezeokeke E, Iheme C, Alison LN. Effect of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on oxidative stress and atherogenic indices of otapiapia-exposed albino rats. Journal of Clinical Toxicology. 2017;7:350.

Dietschy JM, Turley SD, Spady DK. Role of liver in the maintenance cholesterol and low density lipoprotein homeostasis in different animal species, including humans. Journal of Lipid Research. 1993; 34:1637-1659.

Chattopadhyay RR, Bandyopadhyay M. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile changes in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. African Journal of biomedical Research. 2005;8:101-104.